Police checks can also be an effective alternative to the reintroduction of border controls. Measures such as joint patrols, joint investigation teams, cross-border prosecutions or joint threat analyses were discussed as alternatives to effectively address security threats. Improving the management of the EU`s external borders: Participants stressed the need for the swift establishment of the Entry/Exit System (EES) and the European Traveller Information and Authorisation System (ETIAS). These systems complement existing databases, such as the Schengen Information System or the Visa Information System, which need to be fully exploited. Ongoing work to ensure that migration, border management and security information systems become interoperable by 2023 was highlighted as essential to provide border guards with the information they need to know who is crossing EU borders. The dispatch, from January 2021, of the Permanent European Border and Coast Guard Pool will also provide increased assistance to Member States` border guards if necessary. . . .